FDA extends access to experimental drugs
FDA extended access program started back in 2009 and it allowed patients with life-threatening diseases who have exhausted all other options to try experimental drugs, which are not on the market yet. After the implementation the program for the period between 2009 and 2014 FDA has approved almost 6000 requests for experimental treatment, however some view the current process as ineffective.
The new legislation ‘Federal Right to Try Act’ will further increase the access to experimental drugs and change the pathway to obtain approvals. However, the agency remains committed to protect patients’ safety and provide more treatment options to patients with life-threatening diseases.
FDA prepares guidance on including adolescent in adult oncology clinical trials
It is known that cancer in young paediatric patients may differ from adults and therefor needs new approaches and treatments; there is an acute demand for treatment options for paediatric cancer patients. It was established that in some type of cancers there is similarity in paediatric and adult cancer histology and biological behaviour – for example, some soft tissue and bone sarcomas, central nervous system tumours, leukaemia, lymphomas and melanomas.
Often paediatric clinical trials are conducted long after adult trials and this could lead to delay in access to potentially effective therapies.
In June 2018 FDA released guidance on inclusion of adolescents (age between 12 and 17 years) in clinical trials. The guideline outlines appropriate criteria for inclusion of adults and adolescents at different stages of drug development; recommendations regarding dosing, pharmacokinetics, safety, monitoring and ethical considerations.
According to the guide doses have to be selected based on whether the adult dose is fixed or based on body size; dosing should be supported by pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drug, the therapeutic index of the drug and dose- and exposure-response relationships. Pharmacokinetic samples for adolescents should be collected according to the drug development programme to verify exposure in adolescents and adults. In case of body size-adjusted dosing adolescents should receive the same body size-adjusted dose as adults; however if it is fixed dose then a minimum body weight threshold should be defined to prevent adolescents with a lower than average body weight from exceeding adult exposure. While in early drug development long term safety follow up may not be possible the guide recommends sponsors to develop plan for long term safety evaluation where feasible. Under the federal regulations, IRBs reviewing adult oncology clinical trials that allow for the enrolment of adolescents must ensure that the provisions of 21 CFR Part 50, Subpart D (‘Additional Safeguards for Children in Clinical Investigations’) and 21 CFR 50.52 (‘Clinical Investigations involving Greater than Minimal Risk but Presenting the Prospect of Direct Benefit to Individual Subjects’) are satisfied before approving the trials.